The arrangement of statistics in Azerbaijan commenced with the operation of the statistical committees within the Shamakhy (from 1846-till 1859), Baku (1859) and Ganja (1967) provinces following their establishment.
The annual reports of the provinces combining 20-27 statistical tables issued from the said period till 1917 incorporated the statistical materials on the of the population, number of cattle, workers, fairs, factories and plants, the circulation of plants and products and fairs, the commercial prices of major goods, the number of militants and other information.
During 23 months of the Democratic Republic of Azerbaijan (1918-1920) the government made attempts to establish a single body regulating the statistical issues on the territory of the country.
Though the aim was not achieved, definite structures related to statistics were created within different Ministries. These structures started operating as the Statistical department within the Ministry of State Property and Agriculture from November 15, 1918 and as the Statistical Bureau with the Lands Fund of the Agricultural Ministry from July of 1919.
The regulation on the temporary statistical collegiums was approved by the Revolutionary Committee of Azerbaijan and signed by Nariman Narimanov on July 8, 1920.
The establishment of the local statistical bodies started in Azerbaijan in 1924 and later the statistical bodies were created in all the regions of the country.
The new regulation on the Central Statistical Department of the Azerbaijan SSR was adopted by the People's Commissars Council of the Azerbaijan SSR and Central Executive Committee of Azerbaijan on September 28, 1928.
The Central Statistical Department separated from the State Planning Commission in August of 1948 and joined the Central Statistical Committee under the USSR Council of Ministers in August of 1948. This fact was of great importance for the improvement of the activity of statistical bodies.
The Central Statistical Department of the Azerbaijan SSR was transformed into the State Statistical Committee in 1987 and the regulation on the state statistical committee of the Azerbaijan SSR was approved by the Cabinet of Ministers on March 30, 1988.
The year of 1994 was a special period in the history of the statistics in Azerbaijan. The President of the Republic of Azerbaijan Heydar Aliyev signed a law of the Republic of Azerbaijan "On the Statistics". Taking into account all the requirements of the major principles of official statistics in the region of the Economic Commission of Europe confirmed by the 47th
session of the commission held in Geneva on April 15, 1992 the law incorporated the establishment of national classification, brought in conformity to international one and the state register of the subjects engaged in thrift of the Republic of Azerbaijan, the conduction of state statistical observations on the territory of the country, protection of the statistical secret and social insurance of the state bodies officials, etc.
During the period of independence of Azerbaijan improvement of official statistics, the completion of reforms in this sector and conforming to international standards, informing the society and development of statistics according to the policy of state economy, improvement of the provision of information on socio-economic development of the country, bringing it in conformity with the international standards, obtaining of new statistical information characterizing the integration of economy to the world economy was given particular emphasis. By this purpose, five year state programs on improvement of statistics and conduction of reforms had been developed and realized by the State Statistical Committee. During these years 4 State Programs (1993-1997, 1998-2002, 2003-2007, 2008-2012) had been implemented, the last State Program (2013-2017) had been approved by the decree of the President of the country dated 21 December 2012, № 2621 and its implementation had been launched.
The purpose of the Program is to improve national accounts system, development of statistical directions and statistical classification systems reflecting the socio-economic development of the country, the development and improvement of unified information system of state statistical bodies and reduction of respondents' statistical burden and etc.
The statement of the national leader of the Azerbaijani people Heydar Aliyev that was left in the memory of the country's statistical scientists "We have a state statistical committee which conducts an exact statistics"
is a good example of the importance attached to the statistical committee.
The System of the State Statistical Committee currently comprises Administration, the State Statistical Committee of the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic, the Statistical Department of Baku city, the Statistical Departments of 83 districts (cities), and the Centre of Scientific Research and Statistical Innovations organization under subordination of the State Statistical Committee but not included in the structure.